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Transnational Issues in Pakistan

Disputes – International

Various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region. Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarised territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir) and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas). UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949. India does not recognise Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964. India and Pakistan have also maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region.

Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarised Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries. To defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea. Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State.

By 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing. Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities. Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps.

Refugees & Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)

There were 1,701,945 Afghan refugees in 2011. As of 2012, IDPs totalled 818,000, due to fighting in Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Khyber-Pakhtunkwa and Balochistan since 2004; military operations in SWAT in 2009; and flooding in 2010.

Illicit Drugs

Pakistan is a significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa and Asia. Financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption and smuggling remain problems. Opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated. Federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilises forced eradication, fines and arrest.





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